Skip Navigation LinksVolume : Volume 2 No.2 1992

  
  
  
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user_satisfaction_approach_a_model_to_control_the_prototyping_process.pdfUSER SATISFACTION APPROACH: A MODEL TO CONTROL THE PROTOTYPING PROCESS
  
ABSTRACT:
Although prototyping has been widely publicized recently, it has only been adopted by a few organizations. The lack  of explicit guidelines for  controlling the iterations is one of the principal  reasons for its under-utilization. There have been attempts by researchers to overcome this problem  but none of them offer any explicit suggestions on how to exercise more control on the prototyping  approach.  A new  controlling scheme known as the User Satisfaction Approach together with a model on how to implement  the  principles and ideas is  presented here. Explicit guidelines are offered for monitoring and controlling the progress of the prototype. This approach greatly improves the controlling mechanism and therefore encourages data-processing managers to adopt prototyping approach in their systems development.

AUTHOR:
Mohd. Hasan Selamat and Md Mahbubur Rahim

KEYWORDS :  Prototyping, systems development, user satisfaction, control, management.
Year: 1992
the_kinetics_and_mechanism_of_the_infusion_of_ascorbic_acid_and_mineral_elements_from_rose-hip_tea.pdfTHE KINETICS AND MECHANISM OF THE INFUSION OF ASCORBIC ACID AND MINERAL ELEMENTS FROM ROSE-HIP TEA
  
ABSTRACT:
The kinetics of extraction of a soluble constituent from rose-hip tea has been interpreted by a steady state model.  The model is  able to derive a quantitative relationship  between the concentration of a particular constituent in  the  bulk solution and the  time  leading  towards the. determination of an overall rate constant for the infusion.  The kinetic equation shows the overall rate constant is made up of three contributions which arise from the diffusion of the constituent through the particle, its transfer across the particle/water interface, and its diffusion through the Nernst layer before reaching the bulk solution. The infusion of ascorbic acid and selected mineral ions into water from rose-hip teas thus provide a model for future quantitative kinetic and equilibrium study of solute extraction for other similar materials. 

AUTHOR: S.S. Chen

KEYWORDS: Kinetics, extraction rate, steady state, diffusion, infusion, rose-hip, ascorbic acid, high performance liquid chromatograph, ion  chromatograph, mineral elements.
Year: 1992
piezoelectric_property_of_mn-_fe-_and_ai-doped_lanthanum_modified_lead_zirconate_titanate.pdfPIEZOELECTRIC PROPERTY OF Mn-, Fe-AND AI-DOPED LANTHANUM MODIFIED LEAD ZIRCONATE TITANATE
  
ABSTRACT:
Among the Al-, Fe- and Mn-doped lanthanum modified lead zirccinate titanate {PLZT) prepared, only manganese affected the mechanical quality factor Qm of the ceramic.  The manganese ions enhances the oxygen vacancies which act as pinning points to the domain wall motion and thus increases the Om value. The high oxygen diffusion coefficient reflects the abundance of oxygen vacancies within the sample.

AUTHOR:
Aishah Isnin, Josefina Celorico, K. Tsuji, H. Haneda, A. Watanabe and S. Shirasaki

KEYWORDS: Lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate {PLZT) doped, mechanical quality factor,  oxygen vacancies, oxygen diffusion coefficient.
Year: 1992
nickel_recovery_from_electroplating_sludge_by_diaphragm_electrolysis_process.pdfNICKEL RECOVERY FROM ELECTROPLATING SLUDGE BY DIAPHRAGM ELECTROLYSIS PROCESS
  
ABTRACT:
The use of diaphragm electrolysis in the disposal of toxic s!udge  was studied with the aim of conserving heavy metal resources and re-utilizing valuable metals recovered from the sludge. This process could eliminate sludge quantity of more than 90 percent by volume, thereby saving on treatment and disposal costs. Benchscale studies were carried out to determine the optimum conditions for good recovery of nickel from factory-segregated  nickel sludge. A scale-up on a 110-litre prototype confirmed similar results of 90-100% cathode efficiencies using factory-segregated nickel sludge. The product was tested for its purity. Economic assessment was attempted which showed the viability of the process especially if the treatment and disposal costs were included. This process is applicable for recovery of other heavy metals such as copper and zinc.

AUTHOR:
T.Y. Chew and G.H. Tee

KEYWORDS :  Clean technology,  diaphragm electrolysis, toxic  sludge, electroplating, heavy metal recovery, re-utilization,  economic assessment, sludge disposal, sludge treatment, disposal costs.
Year: 1992
neural_networks_for_the_development_of_intelligent_controllers.pdfNEURAL NETWORKS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLIGENT CONTROLLERS
  
ABSTRACT:
This paper addresses the development of intelligent self-learning controllers using back propagation neural networks for two kinds of temperature control processes: a miniaturized model of an industrial furnace and a water. bath. The method does not require the use of any prior conventional controller or knowledge regarding dynamics which can be easily applied to a wide variety of stable control systems. The neural networks learn the inverse dynamic models from the.open-loop input-output behaviour of the process plants. Once trained, they are configured as direct controllers to the plants similar to a conventional feedback control scheme. A novel feature of the neurocontrollers is that they can be continuously trained on-line by specialized learning, to further improve their performance. Experimental results show that the neuro-controllers compare well with conventional feedback controllers, giving improved performance and robustness, and are easier to implement with no requirement for tuning when confronted with moderate load disturbances.

AUTHOR:
Marzuki  Khalid

KEY WORDS : Backpropagation neural networks, intelligent controllers, input-output behaviour, self-learning, inverse dynamic models, real-time control.
Year: 1992
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