Skip Navigation LinksVolume : Volume 6 No.2 1997

  
  
  
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water_perfume_microemulsion_region_stabilized_by_hydrophobic_surfactants_and_their_mixtures.pdfWATER/PERFUME MICROEMULSION REGION STABILIZED BY HYDROPHOBIC SURFACTANTS AND THEIR MIXTURES
  
ABSTRACT:
The water/perfume micro-emulsion region stabilized by Aerosol-OT and Tween 20, and their mixtures were determined. The regions  were more extended than those of equivalent components with hydrocarbon. The regions were also found to be dependent on the weight ratio of the mixed Aerosol-OT and Tween 20; a larger region resulted with increased amount of Aerosol-OT Overall, the hydrophilicity of the perfumes showed little effect on the variation of the micro-emulsion region, either on the pure or mixed surfactant systems.

AUTHOR:
Hamdan Suhaimi, Faujan Ahmad, Fauziah Mohd Hasan, Anuar, K., Ambar Y.
Year: 1997
response_surface_methodology_in_the_characterization_of_wire_bond_process.pdfRESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY IN  THE CHARACTERIZATION OF WIRE BOND PROCESS
  
ABSTRACT:
In  the  semiconductor industries,  the  reliability of the wire in  a wire-bond process is ensured through a destructive test known as the wire pull test. The parameters influencing the wire pull are the bond power, bond time and bond force. In order to find out the effect of these parameters on the wire pull, a first-order design based on the  response surface methodology has been done. The design consisted of twelve experimental runs with various combinations of these parameters. Based on the experimental data, a first-order model has  been developed which indicates that the bond power is  the most significant parameter influencing the wire pull. With this finding, the bond power has been selected as an input to  a process control parameters. The wire pull is again correlated to the bond width. Any variation in the bond width influences the wire pull force. Hence by controlling the bond power, bond width could be controlled and a certain range of bond width value will ensure the reliability of the wire bonding. By applying the 'exponentially weighted moving averages' (EWMA) control chart, bond width of the wire is checked continuously. Any variation of the bond width is controlled by adjusting the bond power on the machine and this will ultimately help eliminate the need for destructive wire pull test.

AUTHOR:
I.A. Choudhury and P. Ghanesh
Year: 1997
modelling_and_simulation_of_powder_compaction_processes.pdfMODELLING AND SIMULATION OF POWDER COMPACTION PROCESSES
  
ABSTRACT:
A model and computational technique to  describe the  complete compaction process is presented. A combination Mohr-Coulomb and Elliptical Cap Yield Model is used to represent the material behaviour of powder under compaction. The finite element method is utilised, incorporating the suggested yield model, for simulating the bush component. Different fill depth of iron powder can be simulated with this  model and shows good agreement with the  experimental data. The versatility of the  computational technique  also allows the  different motions of tooling simulation.

AUTHOR:
Ahmad Kamal Ariffin Mohd lhsan
Year: 1997
microemulsion_systems_of_palm_kernel_soap_with_vegetable_oils_and_hydrocarbons.pdfMICROEMULSION SYSTEMS OF PALM KERNEL SOAP WITH VEGETABLE OILS AND HYDROCARBONS
  
ABSTRACT:
Palm kernel soap (PKS) was synthesised from RBD palm kernel olein and its microemulsions formed with vegetable oils and hydrocarbons, and stabilised by n-butanol were investigated. The results showed that the short chain hydrocarbon, n-hexane was easily solubilised in water-PKS system (forming the largest isotropic region) compared to n-octane and n-decane. In the presence of /3-carotene, the PKS acted oppositely whereby n-decane yielded the largest microemulsion region. Among the vegetable oils studied, palm kernel olein gave the largest microemulsion region compared to palm olein and soybean oil. The regions were significantly reduced when palm kernel oil and palm olein were mixed with soybean oil.

AUTHOR:
Dzulkefly, K., Hamdan, S., Anuar, K., Ahmad, M.B. and Zaizi, M.D.
Year: 1997
effect_of_silane_titanate_and_zirconate_coupling_agents_in_polypropylene_composites.pdfEFFECT OF SILANE, TITANATE AND ZIRCONATE COUPLING AGENTS IN POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES
  
ABSTRACT:
Four types of coupling agents, viz. silane (PROSIL 2020 and PROS IL 9234), titanate (LICA 38) and zirconate (NZ 44) were applied to polypropylene composites filled with silica-based fillers derived from rice husk ash (RHA). For the composite treated with the built-in peroxide generator (PROSIL 2020), the melt flow index increased with filler content and the tensile strength showed considerable improvement. The LICA 38 and the PROS IL 9234 coupling agents enhanced the impact properties. None of the coupling agents enhanced the  stiffness of the composites except for the NZ 44 at maximum filler loading. The mechanical properties of the RHA composites were compared to polypropylene composites filled with commercial fumed silica.

AUTHOR:
M.Y. Ahmad Fuad, M.T. Zawawi, S. Rahmad, R. Norazlan and Z. Ismail
Year: 1997
automating_batik_colouring_process_a_proposal.pdfAUTOMATING BATIK COLOURING PROCESS : A PROPOSAL
  
ABSTRACT:
Despite the technological advances in many areas of textile production world wide, the Batik industry in  Malaysia is still predominantly  labour intensive. The recent introduction of automation in one of the Batik processes is an important step toward overcoming the many shortcomings of the industry.  However, there are still many processes that need to be upgraded. In this paper, an attempt to develop a system for automating the Batik colouring process is presented. Possible hardware and software of the system are outlined. The main objective of the paper is  to offer an overall view of the system and to initiate a discussion about how such a system may be developed.

AUTHOR:
lrraivan Elamvazuthi and Alan S. Morris
Year: 1997