|A QUANTITATIVE TITRIMETRIC METHOD AND FTIR MONITORIN OF SOLID PHASE PALLADIUM-CATALYSED REACTIONS |
A titration procedure quantifying the immobilisation of iodoaniline and bromoaniline onto PS-TsCI (polystyrene sulfonyl chloride) and a qualitative procedure following the FTIR spectra of the reactants, intermediate products and the final product is presented here. The titration of chloride ions released in the first step of the solid phase combinatorial synthesis was carried out using the Mohr method. Quantitative measurements were made using standard NaCl solution. Results show that the immobilisation and reaction yield with bromoaniline was far better than iodoaniline and that both solid phase reactions were optimised by the 14th hour. Sensitivity tests show that chloride ions can be detected with as low as 30 mg PS-TsCI. This simple and fast quantitative method not only serves as a detection method but allows us to compare the reactivities of various types of anilines, perform optimisation studies and quantify the reaction yields. FTIR spectroscopy was also used to follow the reaction from the immobilisation stage of the PS-TsCI until its cleavage from the final product, while varying the R groups.
KEYWORDS: solid phase, quantitative monitoring, palladium-catalysed , titrimetric
Author: Uma D. Palanisamy·, Lim Chuan Gee, Sulaiman., Vb, Saraswati S. Velu and Abd. Rahman, Noorsaadah
|2005||3/14/2017 12:24 PM||3/28/2017 4:55 PM|
|A SURVEY ON COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING (CIM) IN MALAYSIAN INSTITUTES OF HIGHER EDUCATION |
This paper is based on a survey carried out in 2001 on Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) conducted at Malaysian institutes of higher education . The main objective of this paper is to provide empirical evidence of the institutions current and future needs on CIM manpower expertise and facilities required. To achieve this objective, the authors developed a questionnaire comprising of 17 main questions. The analyses from 28 institutions showed that there is a serious shortage in terms of number and expertise in CIM technology in these institutions. In addition, the survey found that most of the CIM systems and equipment were imported from overseas and very few were locally manufactured. The paper also discusses the importance of CIM in enhancing Malaysian companies competitiveness in the manufacturing industry.
Author: Baba Md Deros*, Azmi Hassan, Che Hassan Che Haron and Yusoff Ali
|2005||3/14/2017 12:24 PM||3/29/2017 4:12 PM|
|CATHODIC PROTECTION SYSTEM : A STUDY OF IMPRESSED CURRENT SYSTEM |
Cathodic Protection System (CPS) is used to reduce corrosion by minimising the difference in voltage potential between the terminal of anode and cathode. This can be achieved via impressed current system by applying a current from an electrical source to the structure to be protected. When enough current is applied, the whole structure will be at one potential , thus anode and cathode sites will not exist. CPS is commonly used on many types of structures such as pipelines, underground storage tanks, locks and ship hulls. In this work, the two methods of applying cathodic protection by using an impressed current system and sacrificial anode had been reviewed. However, only impressed current system was measured experimentally. The calculated and measured current values were obtained for impressed current system. The measurement of the output current taken each week showed that there is a decrease in the required current with time due to the reduction of anode surface during the lifespan of the system.
KEYWORDS: Cathodic protection system, corrosion , impressed current
Author: Nashiren Farzilah Mailah, Senan Mahmod Bashi
|2005||3/14/2017 12:24 PM||3/29/2017 4:13 PM|
|COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS OF FLOWS AND PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS IN A 96 MW COMBINED CYCLE DIVERTER DAMPER|
A diverter damper is commonly used where the gas _is either to be directed to alternate outlets or enters the system from alternate inlets. For combined cycle power plant, the diverter damper is used to direct exhaust gas of the gas turbine either into the waste heat recovery boiler or, when running under open cycle mode, exits directly to the by-pass stack. The damper also allows control of the proportion of flow entering the boiler. This paper describes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFO) simulations that have been performed in order to study the flow pattern inside the diverter damper at various opening angle. The objective is to determine the net force exerted by the exhaust gas on the damper at various opening angle. Data on the pressure distribution on the damper will be utilised for structural loading calculations. Examination of the pressure distribution on the face of the damper showed that there is a non-uniform force across it. The inlet flow is not symmetrical and this causes a velocity gradient across the flow, which results in a pressure gradient. The pressure is highest at the bottom right hand corner of the damper, especially when the opening angle is very small. This may be significant in generating a twisting moment on the diverter damper blade.
KEYWORDS : CFO, diverter damper, combined cycle power plant, failure analysis
Author: Mohd. Zamri Yusoff and Zainul Asri Mamat
|2005||3/14/2017 12:24 PM||3/29/2017 4:14 PM|
|DEVELOPMENT OF FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER FOR MOVEMENT CONTROL OF ROBOTIC SYSTEM|
This research focuses on design and development of a fuzzy logic controller that is suitable to control movement of the robotic system. A fuzzy logic controller is designed, developed and attached to th~ designed robotic system in order to control speed of the robot under specified direction and during dynamic changes. The Simulink block diagram and an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) system have been developed to simulate and analyse performance and stability of the robotic system during its movement.The simulation result and the output characteristic· show the alteration speed of the system due to the change of signals from other systems such as sensor system, obstacle avoidance system, line tracking system and mechanical designed movement system. The GUI will display the movement of overall system into two-dimensional visualisation output based on the fuzzy logic control approach. The result has shown that the implementation of fuzzy logic controller in the robotic system can improve the overall output speed performance. With the fuzzy logic control blocks, the designed system can be improved to handle imprecise signals which are very common in the real wor1d. Whenever the signals alter, the speed of the robotic system is adjusted using the fuzzy logic controller to give an appropriate movement correction.
KEYWORDS : Movement control, intelligent control, fuzzy logic controller, robotic systems, graphical user interface (GUI)
Author: Azura Che Soh, Mohd Khair Hassan, Mohd Amran Mohd Radzi and Li Hong Fey
|2005||3/14/2017 12:24 PM||3/29/2017 4:14 PM|
|DOPPLER EFFECT METHOD FOR SPEED TB.AP DETECTOR Year:2005|
One of the many reasons of fatal accidents on the road is vehicle speeding beyond the allowable limit. The enforcement authority has tried to implement many preventive actions to overcome the problem including increasing speed trap operations. In an operation, vehicles which exceed the speed limit will receive a summon. This research is to develop an effective speed detector system that uses Doppler effects and is controlled by a microcontroller. The 8-bit MC68HC11 microcontroller is used to receive speed data from a Doppler radar speed sensor. It is programmed to detect the signal, calculate the speed of vehicle, display data on LCD, and concurrently send the data to a PC through a RS-232 port via a Serial Communication Interface. The GUI (Graphical User Interface) for the PC is developed with VB6 programming to receive data from the microcontroller and to capture the image. VB6 is programmed to capture images in both the manual and auto modes. The image is saved in a directory if the speed of the vehicle exceeds the speed limit and programmed into the microcontroller. The Microsoft Access programming is used to save and record the data in a database.
KEYWORDS: Radar gun, speed trap system, Doppler radar speed sensor microcontroller interfacing, VB programming, graphical user interface
Author: Wan Zuha A.H., Zulkifli A.R., Samsul B.M.N, MKhair H., Liakot A. and Syed A.R.
|2005||3/14/2017 12:25 PM||3/29/2017 4:15 PM|
|FRICTION MATERIALS FOR BRAKES APPLICATION |
In this paper, an overview on the friction materials fo(brakes is presented. Friction materials are used in components such as clutch facings, brake pads and linings in which elements of a controlled friction level are necessary. They have more stringent requirements than almost any other sliding components, therefore their important functional properties are discussed . Ingredients for the friction materials include fibres, fillers, binder, friction modifiers and lubricants. This paper gives an example of the ingredients and the outline of their roles. Short descriptions on material formulations are also discussed . These include asbestos-based, non-asbestos organic, semi-metallic, metallic matrix, and carbon-based friction materials. Different material formulations are used in different models of brakes. A general description of the production process is presented. It includes raw material blending, pre-forming, hot-pressing, curing and finishing. Friction materials are among the most critical components and therefore testing to determine their properties and performance is of great importance. The types of tests before final approval are described and the purpose of each is discussed.
KEYWORDS: Friction material, brake pad, friction coefficient9
Author: Mohmad Soib bin Selamat
|2005||3/14/2017 12:25 PM||3/29/2017 4:16 PM|
|HARMONIC REDUCTION IN THREE-PHASE SINGLE - SWITCH POWER FACTOR CORRECTION CIRCUIT |
Diode rectifiers are commonly used at the front end of a power converter as an interface with the electric utility. The rectifiers are nonlinear and generate harmonic currents into the ac power source. A harmonic injection technique, which reduces the line frequency harmonics of single switch three-phase boost rectifier, was developed in this study. In this method, a periodic voltage was injected into the control circuit to vary the duty cycle of the rectifier switch within a line cycle so that the fifth-order harmonic of the input current is reduced to meet the total harmonic distortion (THD) requirement. As the injected voltage signal that is proportional to the inverted ac component of the rectified three-phase line-to-line input voltage is employed; the injected duty cycle variations are inherently synchronized with the three-phase line-to-neutral input voltage.
KEYWORDS : Discontinuous conduction mode, harmonic injection, boost converter, power factor correction
Author: S.M. Bashi, N. Mariun and H.S. Athab
|2005||3/14/2017 12:25 PM||3/29/2017 4:17 PM|
|IMPROVEMENT IN MACHINE PERFORMANCE TO REDUCE DEVELOPMENT TIME FOR NEW MODEL IN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY |
A study of improvement in machine performance to reduce development time for new model in automotive industry is presented in this paper. The approach taken are by studying the exist ing practice in car development and suggesting various ways for method improvement such as through the reduction in errors during software introduction , the increase of automation and the increase in machine safety. The result s are summarised in a table through SWOT analysis.
KEYWORDS : Machine improvement, automotive industry, time reducti
Author: N.M.Z.N. Mohamed, H.Y. Sastra, S.M. Sapuan, N. lsmail and A.B. A . Hamid
|2005||3/14/2017 12:25 PM||3/29/2017 4:17 PM|
|POINTING PERFORMANCE OF COMBINED ENERGY AND ATTITUDE CONTROL SYSTEM |
Combining the conventional energy and attitude control system is a feasible solution for small satellites to improve the space missions. In this combined energy and attitude control system (CEACS) a double rotating flywheel in the pitch axis is used to replace the conventional battery for energy storage as well as to control the attitude of an earth oriented satellite. Each flywheel is to be controlled in the torque mode. The energy and attitude inputs for the flywheels' control architecture are also in the torque mode. All related mathematical representations along with the relevant transfer functions are developed. The required numerical calculations are performed using Matlab™ for studying the system performances. The goals of this work are to determine the CEACS attitude performance in the torque mode with respect to the ideal and non-ideal test cases for chosen reference missions.
KEYWORDS : Attitude control, energy storage, flywhee
Author: Ibrahim Mustafa Mehedi and Renuganth Varatharajoo
|2005||3/14/2017 12:25 PM||3/29/2017 4:18 PM|
|REMOVAL OF PHENOL AND COD VIA CATALYTIC TREATMENT USING ACTIVATED CARBON AND ALUMINA WITH OZONE |
The removal of aqueous phenol and COD (chemical oxygen demand) was examined by ozonation, adsorption and catalytic ozonation with granular activated carbon (GAC) and alumina. Adsorption and catalytic ozonation tests were performed on 100 ppm phenol at 30°C. Results of the experiments indicated that GAC removed up to 71.2% of phenol and 75.4 % of COD in two hours via adsorption, and is potentially a promising adsorbent to remove phenol compared to alumina, which does not remove phenol and COD to any significant extent. Add ition of ozone into the system resulted in larger phenol removal with 100% and 95.1 % removal achieved by GAC and alumina respectively. However, the COD removal achieved by ozonation with GAC was more complete with 93.4% removal compared to alumina with 57.9% removal. Therefore, combination of ozone with GAC is potentially a suitable alternative to treat wastewater containing phenol.
KEYWORDS : Ozonation, catalytic ozonation, phenol, alumina, activated carbo
Author: Nor Aishah Saidina Amin, Harjit Kaur Man Singh and M. Rashid
|2005||3/14/2017 12:25 PM||3/29/2017 4:19 PM|
|RETROFITTED ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS COMPARISON WITH GASOLINE AND NATURAL GAS FUEL|
Natural gas is considered to be a desirable fuel by energy experts, policy makers and environmentalists alike. As the whole world is concerned about air pollution and energy security, the future engine manufacturers are committed to lowering automotive emissions. High octane rating of compressed natural gas (CNG) allows the CNG powered engine to operate with a high compression ratio and produce more power. For efficient use of the natural gas engines as an alternative to gasoline, the enhancement of engine performance is an absolute necessity. In the present study, Magma 12 valve spark ignition retrofitted engine was run on gasoline and natural gas. The performance and exhaust emissions of the engine were analysed and compared for the two fuels. Based on the experimental results, it is clear that natural gas shows lower emissions of CO, C02 and HC, low specific fuel consumptions, low power and higher NO.. It is evident that new direct injection compressed natural gas (CNG/DI) engine will offer the potential for significant performance and emissions benefits compared to gasoline/retrofitted engine.
KEYWORDS : Engine performance, alternative fuel, compressed natural gas, air pollution, energy security
Author: M.U. Aslam, H.H. Masjuki, M.A. Maleque and M.A. Kalam
|2005||3/14/2017 12:25 PM||3/29/2017 4:23 PM|
|REVIEW OF ADVANCES IN TRANSFORMER DIELECTRIC INSULATING FLUIDS |
This paper discusses a summary of recent work on a natural edible seed-oilbased dielectric fluid. Evidence has shown some property deficiencies with the presently used petroleum and mineral oils for transformer cooling. The present efforts by researchers to develop and provide alternative means of cooling and insulating transformers is pivoted around the obvious importance of transformers in electrical power supply network. Most important is the ability of natural vegetable dielectric fluids to comply with environmental and health regulation laws in cases of spillage. The treated natural vegetable oils have been found to meet specifications since they have high flash points (up to 300°C), high fire points (250°-300°C), lower pour points (50KV). These conditions comply with IEEE C57, IEEE 637, ASTM 06781 and IEC 60296 (standards). Finally, its biodegradability makes it safe for use in densely populated areas and close to waterways. Today, not only technical performance is of essence in material selection, but also the overall environmental and total life-cycle cost is becoming part of the analysis. Malaysia stands to gain a lot from this type of research, since it is one of the world leaders in palm oil production.
KEYWORDS : Transformer oil, insulating vegetable fluid, vegetable oil coo
Author: S M Bashi, Robia Yunus, M. Mohibullah , U. U Abdullahi and A. N. Abdul Aziz
|2005||3/14/2017 12:25 PM||3/29/2017 4:23 PM|
|VOLTAGE REGULATION OF UNINTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLIES |
Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS) systems are used as a solution to power quality problems and to provide ultimate protection for power disturbances such as power blackouts and brownouts. Many UPS systems suffer from poor output voltage regulation especially with heavy loads. This work is aimed to design and implement the UPS system capable of producing continuous and constant 230Vac' 50 Hz output supply. A feedback loop has been implemented using microcontroller to adjust the de level supplying the UPS inverter. Tests have been carried out to determine the reliability and effectiveness of the designed system, and good results have been obtained in improving the voltage regulation.
KEYWORDS: UPS, voltage regulation, batteries, power continuity, AMF
Author: J. Jasni, S. M. Bashi and N. Mariun
|2005||3/14/2017 12:26 PM||3/29/2017 4:24 PM|